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Title: Costs prediction following traumatic brain injury: model development and validation.
Epworth Authors: Spitz, Gershon
McKenzie, Dean
Ponsford, Jennie
Other Authors: Attwood, David
Keywords: Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre, Epworth Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Clinical Trials and Research Centre, Epworth Healthcare, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Head Trauma
Injuries, Head
Trauma, Head
Recovery of Function
Long-Term Care
Health Care Providers
Brain Injuries
Injuries, Brain
Traumatic Brain Injury
Trauma, Brain
Injury Severity Score
Rehabilitation, Mental Health and Chronic Pain Clinical Institute, Epworth HealthCare, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: Feb-2016
Publisher: BMJ Group
Citation: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;87(2):173-80.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The ability to predict costs following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) would assist in planning treatment and support services by healthcare providers, insurers and other agencies. The objective of the current study was to develop predictive models of hospital, medical, paramedical, and long-term care (LTC) costs for the first 10 years following a TBI. METHODS: The sample comprised 798 participants with TBI, the majority of whom were male and aged between 15 and 34 at time of injury. Costing information was obtained for hospital, medical, paramedical, and LTC costs up to 10 years postinjury. Demographic and injury-severity variables were collected at the time of admission to the rehabilitation hospital. RESULTS: Duration of PTA was the most important single predictor for each cost type. The final models predicted 44% of hospital costs, 26% of medical costs, 23% of paramedical costs, and 34% of LTC costs. Greater costs were incurred, depending on cost type, for individuals with longer PTA duration, obtaining a limb or chest injury, a lower GCS score, older age at injury, not being married or defacto prior to injury, living in metropolitan areas, and those reporting premorbid excessive or problem alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided a comprehensive analysis of factors predicting various types of costs following TBI, with the combination of injury-related and demographic variables predicting 23-44% of costs. PTA duration was the strongest predictor across all cost categories. These factors may be used for the planning and case management of individuals following TBI.
DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2014-309479
PubMed URL:
ISSN: 0022-3050
Journal Title: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.
Type: Journal Article
Affiliated Organisations: School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Transport Accident Commission, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Type of Clinical Study or Trial: Prospective Cohort Study
Appears in Collections:Health Administration
Mental Health

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