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Title: The temporal relationship between depression, anxiety, and funtional status after traumatic brain injury.
Epworth Authors: Ponsford, Jennie
Gould, Kate
Johnston, Lisa
Other Authors: Schonberger, Michael
Keywords: Anxiety
Brain Injury
Traumatic Brain Injury
Functional Status
Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended
Mental Disorders
Mental Health
Psychological Well Being
Temporal Relationship
Structured Clinical Interview
Prospective Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre, Richmond, Victoria, Australia.
Issue Date: Sep-2011
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Citation: J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011 Sep;17(5):781-7
Abstract: Poor functional status and high rates of anxiety and depression have been reported in individuals who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unclear whether psychiatric disorders after TBI are a cause or a consequence of functional limitations. The current study aimed to investigate the temporal relationship between anxiety, depression and functional impairment following TBI. The study has a prospective, longitudinal single-group design. Anxiety and depression, assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and functional changes, assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, were measured six and 12 months post-injury in 122 individuals who had sustained a TBI (79% male, mean age 35 years, mean duration of post-traumatic amnesia 24 days, mean Glasgow Coma Scale score 9.2). Cross-lagged analyses were conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Functional changes six months post-injury predicted depression and anxiety one year after the injury. Anxiety and depression, in turn, were not predictive of later functional status. This study adds to our understanding of the temporal relationship between depression, anxiety and functional status after TBI. The results indicate the importance of supporting brain injured individuals in coping with the functional consequences of their injury in order promote psychological well-being.
DOI: 10.1017/S1355617711000701
PubMed URL:
ISSN: 1355-6177
Journal Title: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Type: Journal Article
Affiliated Organisations: Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Germany
School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Melbourne Australia
National Trauma Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia
Type of Clinical Study or Trial: Prospective Cohort Study
Appears in Collections:Mental Health

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