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Title: Key Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) items associated with DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorder 12-months post traumatic brain injury.
Authors: McKenzie, Dean
Downing, Marina
Ponsford, Jennie
Keywords: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
Traumatic Brain Injury
Structured Clinical Interview Methods
Classification and Regression Tree
Self-report Rating Scales
Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre (MEERC), Epworth HealthCare, Melbourne, Australia
Rehabilitation, Mental Health and Chronic Pain Clinical Institute, Epworth HealthCare, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: Aug-2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: J Affect Disord. 2018 Aug 15;236:164-171
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI), warranting routine screening. Self-report rating scales including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are associated with depression and anxiety diagnoses in individuals with TBI. The relationship between individual HADS symptoms and structured clinical interview methods (SCID) requires further investigation, particularly in regard to identifying a small number of key items that can potentially be recognised by clinicians and carers of individuals with TBI. METHODS: 138 individuals sustaining a complicated-mild to severe TBI completed the HADS, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Research Version (SCID) at 12-months post-injury. The associations between individual HADS items, separately and in combination, as well as overall depression and anxiety subscale scores, and SCID-diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders were analysed. RESULTS: CART (Classification and Regression Tree) analysis found HADS depression item 2 "I still enjoy the things I used to enjoy" and a combination of two anxiety items, 3 "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" and 5 "worrying thoughts go through my mind", performed similarly to total depression and anxiety subscales in terms of their association with depressive and anxiety disorders respectively, at 12-months post-injury. LIMITATIONS: Patients were predominantly injured in motor vehicle accidents and received comprehensive care within a no-fault accident compensation system and so may not be representative of the wider TBI population. CONCLUSIONS: Although validation is required, a small number of self-report items are highly associated with 12-month post-injury diagnoses.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.092
PubMed URL:
ISSN: 0165-0327
Journal Title: Journal of Affective Disorders
Type: Journal Article
Affiliated Organisations: Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Type of Clinical Study or Trial: Validation Study
Appears in Collections:Mental Health

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